In the United States, efforts to use performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems have yielded mixed results. A more encouraging story has unfolded in England. There, a nationwide accountability system for further education colleges—England’s community-college counterparts—has led to impressive increases in student outcomes since it was implemented in 1992. Students from disadvantaged backgrounds have made particularly large gains. Making Performance Accountability Work takes a detailed look at the policy innovations in England. For U.S. policymakers, they provide both reason for caution and guidance for designing and implementing better performance measurement and funding systems.